last updated: Tue, 11 Mar 2014 11:44:54 GMT
Scientists have built the thinnest-known LED that can be used as a source of light energy in electronics. The LED is based off of two-dimensional, flexible semiconductors, making it possible to stack or use in much smaller and more diverse applications than current technology allows.
Team creates LEDs, photovoltaic cells, and light detectors using novel one-molecule-thick material. Researchers have used a novel material that's just a few atoms thick to create devices that can harness or emit light. This proof-of-concept could lead to ultrathin, lightweight, and flexible photovoltaic cells, light emitting diodes (LEDs), and other optoelectronic devices, they say.
In a significant advance for the growing field of synthetic biology, bioengineers have created a toolkit of genes and hardware that uses colored lights and engineered bacteria to bring both mathematical predictability and cut-and-paste simplicity to the world of genetic circuit design.
Emotional expressions on Greek tombstones from the Hellenistic period -- 323-31 B.C. -- help increase our understanding of social communication and cultural values. Despite the potential of the tombstones as a source for history of emotions, this has rarely been explored by researchers. Researchers now conclude that the illustrations and inscriptions reflect people's way of relating to death, and that the tombstone was a means to deal with the grief of losing a loved one.
Researchers have developed a computer model which, in different situations, simulates the behavior of taxpayers when faced with the possibility of committing tax evasion. The simulator analyzes the factors motivating tax evasion and allows to determine which measures are effective in reducing it, such as an improvement in tax inspections by increasing their frequency and efficacy.
Fresh banana, a waft of flowers, blueberry: the scents in some labs are a little sweeter than most. Researchers are engineering bacteria to make esters -- molecules widely used as scents and flavorings, and also as basic feedstock for chemical processes from paints to fuels.
Alaska, the last great frontier, is being threatened by many proposals to mine an estimated 5.5 trillion tons of coal. Scientists comment on the struggle to keep Alaska untouched.
In a new study, participants completed a scientifically evaluated questionnaire about what they had been eating and drinking since becoming pregnant. The results show that the group of women with the 'healthiest' pregnancy diet had a roughly 15% lower risk of preterm delivery compared with those with the most unhealthy diet. The correlation remained after controlling for ten other known risk factors for preterm delivery.
It is clear that climate change and poverty are two separate problems that affect all corners of the world, but can the solution to one help eliminate the other? Ecosystem-based adaptation is becoming more widely recognized as a possible solution to addressing climate change. Although this program does have its setbacks and limitations, it provides a plan to combat climate change while uplifting poverty stricken communities most vulnerable to the negative effects of climate change.
What if the use of a product influenced your perception of it, making you even more susceptible to its positive aspects and altering your understanding of its drawbacks? This is precisely what happens with cigarettes in chronic smokers, according to a recent study.
The “Steinlehnen” slope in Northern Tyrol (Austria) started to move in 2003. Rockfalls threatened people, streets and buildings. Meanwhile, peace has returned; although the slope is merely “creeping”, Steinlehnen has become an interesting research object for scientists in recent years.
Food picked up just a few seconds after being dropped is less likely to contain bacteria than if it is left for longer periods of time, according to new research. The findings suggest there may be some scientific basis to the '5 second rule' -- the urban myth about it being fine to eat food that has only had contact with the floor for five seconds or less. The study, undertaken by final year biology students monitored the transfer of the common bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus from a variety of indoor floor types (carpet, laminate and tiled surfaces) to toast, pasta, biscuit and a sticky sweet when contact was made from 3 to 30 seconds.
Men who at the age of 18 years have poorer cardiovascular fitness and/or a lower IQ more often suffer from dementia before the age of 60. This is shown in a recent study encompassing more than one million Swedish men.
Aerosols in the atmosphere produced from human activities do indeed directly affect a hurricane or tropical cyclone, but not in a way many scientists had previously believed. In fact, they tend to weaken such storms, according to a new study.
A new type of biomolecular tweezers could help researchers study how mechanical forces affect the biochemical activity of cells and proteins. The devices use opposing magnetic and electrophoretic forces to precisely stretch the cells and molecules.
Astronomers have studied the often deadly relationship between highly luminous O-type stars and nearby protostars in the Orion Nebula. Their data reveal that protostars within 0.1 light-years (about 600 billion miles) of an O-type star are doomed to have their cocoons of dust and gas stripped away in just a few millions years, much faster than planets are able to form.
Physicists have mapped the inner atomic workings of a compound within the mysterious class of materials known as spin-orbit Mott insulators. The findings confirm the properties that theorists predict could lead to discoveries in superconductivity, the topological phases of matter and new forms of magnetism.
Outbreaks of salmon louse during smolt migration reduce the survival rate of the smolt and mean that salmon spend longer at sea before returning to spawn. The mortality rate among migrating smolt as a result of salmon louse corresponds to previous findings both abroad and in Norway, including over a longer time period in the Daleelva.
Researchers have achieved surprising results by exploiting nature's own ability to clean up after oil spills. Scientists know that marine bacteria can assist in cleaning up after oil spills. What is surprising is that given the right kind of encouragement, they can be even more effective.
Australian astronomers have shown galaxies in the vast empty regions of the universe are actually aligned into delicate strings, according to new research. Using data from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, the astronomers found that the small number of galaxies inside these voids are arranged in a new way never seen before.
It may seem like mosquitoes will bite anything with a pulse, but they're actually quite strategic in picking their victims. A new study looked at the interaction of different sensory cues -- carbon dioxide, heat and odor -- that attract mosquitoes to humans, and found that it takes a combination of at least two of these to send the bugs biting.
Some conservation strategies assume that the evolutionary distances between species on a phylogenetic 'tree of life' (a branching diagram of species popularized by Charles Darwin) can be used to predict how diverse their biological features will be. These distances are then used to select which species to conserve in order to maximize interesting biological features -- such as potentially useful drug compounds and resilience to climate change. But a new analysis of data from 223 studies of animals, plants, and fungi, shows that methods based on such distances are often no better at conserving interesting biological features than picking species at random.
A lot of research has been done on graphene recently -- carbon flakes, consisting of only one layer of atoms. As it turns out, there are other materials too which exhibit remarkable properties if they are arranged in a single layer. One of them is tungsten diselenide, which could be used for photovoltaics. Ultrathin layers made of Tungsten and Selenium have now been created; experiments show that they may be used as flexible, semi-transparent solar cells.
The system that allows the sharing of genetic material between bacteria -- and therefore the spread of antibiotic resistance -- has been uncovered by a team of scientists. Understanding the structure of the secretion system will help scientists uncover the mechanism by which it moves substances across the inner and outer membranes. It could eventually help scientists develop new tools for the genetic modification of human cells, as the bacteria could act as a carrier for genetic material, which could then be secreted into cells.
Mutations in a gene associated with leukemia cause a newly described condition that affects growth and intellectual development in children, new research reports. A study identified mutations in the DNA methyltransferase gene, DNMT3A, in 13 children.
The evolution of the first animals may have oxygenated Earth's oceans -- contrary to the traditional view that a rise in oxygen triggered their development. New research contests the long held belief that oxygenation of the atmosphere and oceans was a pre-requisite for the evolution of complex life forms. The study builds on the recent work of scientists in Denmark who found that sponges -- the first animals to evolve -- require only small amounts of oxygen.
ZENBU, a new, freely available bioinformatics tool enables researchers to quickly and easily integrate, visualize and compare large amounts of genomic information resulting from large-scale, next-generation sequencing experiments. Next-generation sequencing has revolutionized functional genomics.
A study of grasslands on six continents suggests a way to counteract the human-made overdose of fertilizer that threatens the biodiversity of the world's prairies. The solution originates in nature: let grazing animals crop fast growing grasses, which have a competitive advantage in an over-fertilized world. The grasses block sunlight from ground level, but herbivores make light available to other plants.
Scientists at the University of East Anglia have identified four new human-made gases in the atmosphere -- all of which are contributing to the destruction of the ozone layer. New research reveals that more than 74,000 tonnes of three new chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and one new hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) have been released into the atmosphere.
A blood test that can predict with greater than 90 percent accuracy if a healthy person will develop mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease within three years has been discovered and validated.
What if you could “hear” colors? Or shapes? These features are normally perceived visually, but using sensory substitution devices (SSDs) they can now be conveyed to the brain noninvasively through other senses. SSDs are non-invasive sensory aids that provide visual information to the blind via their existing senses. For example, using a visual-to-auditory SSD in a clinical or everyday setting, users wear a miniature camera connected to a small computer (or smart phone) and stereo headphones. The images are converted into "soundscapes," using a predictable algorithm, allowing the user to listen to and then interpret the visual information coming from the camera.
Changes in the sun's energy output may have led to marked natural climate change in Europe over the last 1,000 years, according to researchers. The study found that changes in the sun's activity can have a considerable impact on the ocean-atmospheric dynamics in the North Atlantic, with potential effects on regional climate.
For the first time, researchers have shown that an essential biological process known as protein synthesis can be studied in adult stem cells -- something scientists have long struggled to accomplish. Many diseases, including degenerative diseases and certain types of cancers, are associated with mutations in the machinery that makes proteins. However, why this is the case has yet to be understood. Discoveries such as this raise the possibility that changes in protein synthesis are necessary for the development of those diseases.
Kinases are proteins that play vital roles in disease, but scientists have struggled to study how they interact in real time. A team of scientists has now developed a new technique to make these interactions occur and then watch them in real time to reveal some underlying causes of metastasis.
Improving diagnosis and treatment for individuals with autism has been the focus of a growing body of research. New information from these studies led the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry to revise key parameters for evaluating and treating autism. Researchers have published the new practice parameters, which stress a team approach to managing the disease.
Researchers have discovered that a burgeoning deer population forever alters the progression of a forest's natural future by creating environmental havoc in the soil and disrupting the soil's natural seed banks.
Obesity levels among women in low- and middle-income countries tend to rise in line with wealth as they purchase more energy-dense foods, but a new study suggests that more educated consumers make better food choices that mitigate this effect. The study showed that in middle-income countries, obesity levels among women with secondary or higher education are 14-19% lower than less-educated women of similar wealth. The study showed that in middle-income countries, obesity levels among women with secondary or higher education are 14-19 percent lower than less-educated women of similar wealth.
Not only are neuropathic pain symptoms quite common in knee osteoarthritis, but scientists can predict who will respond to treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by assessing the nervous system’s own capacity to regulate pain, new research suggests. Patients whose tests had indicated superior conditioned pain modulation (CPM) had less pain and fewer neuropathic symptoms.
Of nearly 1 million veterans who receive opioids to treat painful conditions, more than half continue to consume opioids chronically or beyond 90 days, new research says. A number of factors were associated with opioid discontinuation with the goal of understanding how abuse problems take hold in returning veterans.
Most patients with multiple defects of the cytochrome P450 system, which is largely responsible for metabolizing opioids, naturally gravitated toward an opioid regimen primarily metabolized through the cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme or a non-cytochrome, metabolic pathway, a new study suggests.
Two hormones credited with reducing pain and need for opioid analgesics when released naturally during pregnancy and childbirth worked similarly when administered simultaneously to patients with intractable pain, research shows.
Stem cell transplant was viable and effective in halting or reversing degenerative disc disease of the spine, a meta-analysis of animal studies showed, in a development expected to open up research in humans. Recent developments in stem cell research have made it possible to assess its effect on intervertebral disc (IVD) height, researchers reported.
Using data from NASA's Van Allen Probes, researchers have tested and improved a model to help forecast what's happening in the radiation environment of near-Earth space -- a place seething with fast-moving particles and a space weather system that varies in response to incoming energy and particles from the sun.
For the estimated 12.7 million people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, the third leading cause of death in the U.S., innovative research efforts in the field of tissue regeneration hold promise. In end-stage lung disease, transplantation is sometimes the only viable therapeutic option, but organ availability is limited and rejection presents an additional challenge. New research focuses on lung tissue bioengineering, which involves the use of a scaffold -- or framework -- of lungs from human cadavers to engineer new lungs for patients with end-stage disease.
A new class of antibiotics to fight bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and other drug-resistant bacteria that threaten public health has been discovered by a team of chemists. The new class, called oxadiazoles, was discovered in silico (by computer) screening and has shown promise in the treatment of MRSA in mouse models of infection. MRSA has become a global public-health problem since the 1960s because of its resistance to antibiotics.
Researchers have found that decision-making accuracy can be improved by postponing the onset of a decision by a mere fraction of a second. The results could further our understanding of neuropsychiatric conditions characterized by abnormalities in cognitive function and lead to new training strategies to improve decision-making in high-stake environments.
We often think of playing fair as an altruistic behavior. We're sacrificing our own potential gain to give others what they deserve. What could be more selfless than that? But new research suggests another, darker origin behind the kindly act of fairness. An expert in the evolution of spite has investigated possible explanations for fair behavior that hadn't been considered before.
Mexican scientists have increased survival rates for patients diagnosed with lunch cancer in metastatic stage (when the disease has spread to different parts of the body) from a rate of nine months of survival to 30 with personalized treatments. Tumor tissue samples were used to extract DNA in order to analyze mutations in the neoplasia (abnormal mass of tissue). Based on the mutations, personalized treatments were provided to the study participants.
Fisheries that rely on short life species, such as shrimp or sardine, have been more affected by climate change, because this phenomenon affects chlorophyll production, which is vital for phytoplankton, the main food for both species.
Using an artificial protein that contains metal, researchers were able to inhibit the growth of a pathogenic bacterium prevalent in hospitals which cause diseases to humans and has a high resistance to antibiotics.
After searching hundreds of millions of objects across our sky, NASA's Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has turned up no evidence of the hypothesized celestial body in our solar system commonly dubbed "Planet X."
Innovative methods of drug discovery don’t always take place in an academic laboratory. They may start there, but they can also happen in orbit aboard the International Space Station, as protein crystallization research is about to demonstrate once again.
To buy, or not to buy? That is the question for the more than 5 million annual visitors to New York’s wineries. Researchers found that customer service is the most important factor in boosting tasting room sales, but sensory descriptions of what flavors consumers might detect were a turn-off.
FDA-approved anti-psychotic drugs possess tumor-killing activity against the most aggressive form of primary brain cancer, glioblastoma, new research indicates. "The anti-glioblastoma effects of these drugs are completely unexpected and were only uncovered because we carried out an unbiased genetic screen," said the lead author.
There's promising news from the front on efforts to produce fuels through artificial photosynthesis. A new study shows that nearly 90 percent of the electrons generated by a hybrid material designed to store solar energy in hydrogen are being stored in the target hydrogen molecules.
Changes to two previously unstudied genes are the centerpiece of a new theory regarding the cause and development of endometriosis, a chronic and painful disease affecting one in 10 women. The discovery suggests epigenetic modification, a process that enhances or disrupts how DNA is read, is an integral component of the disease and its progression.
The majority of Latinas are unaware of their risk of diabetes, a new study finds, which points to the urgent need for alternate sites of opportunity for diabetes screenings. There is also a need for effective and culturally sensitive follow-up care and case management, the authors note. Latina women are at considerable risk for complications from diabetes. Their fear of, and cultural misconceptions concerning diabetes, together with their lack of understanding of diabetes risks makes diabetes screening and self-care a challenge. The study suggests considering alternative sites like optometry venues, pharmacies, dental visits, mobile delivery via health vans, or even places of worship in order to increase access, education, and culturally sensitive self-management programs.
New analyses of NASA airborne radar data collected in 2012 reveal the radar detected indications of a huge sinkhole before it collapsed and forced evacuations near Bayou Corne, La., that year. The findings suggest such radar data, if collected routinely from airborne systems or satellites, could at least in some cases foresee sinkholes before they happen, decreasing danger to people and property.
Ten years ago, we knew Titan as a fuzzy orange ball about the size of Mercury. We knew it had a nitrogen atmosphere -- the only known world with a thick nitrogen atmosphere besides Earth. But what might lie beneath the hazy air was still just a guess.
Astronomers say that magnetic storms in the gas orbiting young stars may explain a mystery that has persisted since before 2006. Researchers using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope to study developing stars have had a hard time figuring out why the stars give off more infrared light than expected. The planet-forming disks that circle the young stars are heated by starlight and glow with infrared light, but Spitzer detected additional infrared light coming from an unknown source.