last updated: Wed, 23 Jul 2014 06:43:38 GMT
If you're a member of the Clean Plate Club -- you eat pretty much everything you put on your plate -- you're not alone! A new study shows that the average adult eats 92 percent of whatever he or she puts on his or her plate. 'If you put it on your plate, it's going into your stomach,' says the author of the forthcoming book on the subject.
"Alaska wood frogs spend more time freezing and thawing outside than a steak does in your freezer, and the frog comes back to life in the spring in better shape than the steak," said the lead author on a recent paper demonstrating that freeze tolerance in Alaska wood frogs is more extreme than previously thought.
The XSEDE-allocated Stampede supercomputer has been used to study the dopamine transporter. Stampede is ranked seventh on the Top 500 list of supercomputers. Its research links altered dopamine signaling and dopamine transporter function to neurological and psychiatric diseases including early-onset Parkinsonism, ADHD, and cocaine addiction.
Among women undergoing a minimally invasive hysterectomy using electric power morcellation, uterine cancers were present in 27 per 10,000 women at the time of the procedure, according to a study. There has been concern that this procedure, in which the uterus is fragmented into smaller pieces, may result in the spread of undetected malignancies.
The physical and mental well-being of people with cancer may be affected by how they feel about their relationship with their physician and by differences in attachment styles, finds a new study. Patients who feel anxious and uneasy with their doctor may be impacted the most. "Anxiously attached patients may experience and report more physical and emotional problems when the relationship with their physician is perceived as less trusting," said the lead author.
A new total knee replacement that saves all of the ligaments can make a person’s knee feel and move just like the original. During a traditional total knee replacement, the surgeon must remove the "island" of bone to which the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) are attached. The new knee features a shape that protects that island of bone and saves the ligaments.
A vaccine for dust-mite allergies has been created, researchers report. In lab tests and animal trials, the nano-sized vaccine package was readily absorbed by immune cells and dramatically lowered allergic responses. "What is new about this is we have developed a vaccine against dust-mite allergens that hasn't been used before," says a corresponding author on the paper.
A potential link between epilepsy and neurodegenerative disorders has been uncovered by new research. "This is, to our knowledge, the first direct genetic evidence demonstrating that mutations in the fly version of a known human epilepsy gene produce seizures through altered vesicle transport," says the senior author of the study.
A genetic basis has been identified for heart disease in women. This new information helps to identify which women are more prone to heart disease, researchers report. The gene, when functioning normally, is activated in part by the hormone estrogen and has been previously shown to relax the blood vessels, and in turn, lower blood pressure.
A 45 percent rise in diagnostic imaging tests ordered by Australian GPs is being driven by increasing GP visits, a rising number of problems managed at consultations and a higher likelihood that GPs order imaging tests for these problems, according to a new study says. Based on a long term national survey of 9,802 GPs between 2002 and 2012, the report draws on data from more than 980,000 GP-patient encounter records to assess the extent to which GP's order tests in line with diagnostic imaging guidelines.
Seeking to gain a high-tech edge over illegal fishers, the Government of Belize will use “eyes in the sky” to enforce fishing regulations in the biodiverse Glover’s Reef Marine Reserve and other reef systems in what is the first use of conservation drones to monitor marine protected areas.
A new geological study concludes that the disastrous March 22 landslide that killed 43 people in the rural Washington state community of Oso involved the "remobilization" of a 2006 landslide on the same hillside. "Perhaps the most striking finding is that, while the Oso landslide was a rare geologic occurrence, it was not extraordinary," said a team leader for the study.
A new study that examined the survival rates of 12 different shark species when captured as unintentional bycatch in commercial longline fishing operations found large differences in survival rates across the 12 species, with bigeye thresher, dusky, and scalloped hammerhead being the most vulnerable.
People diagnosed with depression need to step out for a cigarette twice as often as smokers who are not dealing with a mood disorder. And those who have the hardest time shaking off the habit may have more mental health issues than they are actually aware of, research suggests. While nearly one in five North American adults are regular smokers, a figure that continues to steadily decline, about 40 per cent of depressed people are in need of a regular drag.
A link between Medicaid policies on antipsychotic drugs and incarceration rates for schizophrenic individuals has been uncovered by a new study. Researchers found that states requiring prior authorization for atypical antipsychotics had less serious mental illness overall but higher shares of inmates with psychotic symptoms than the national average. The study concluded that prior authorization of atypical antipsychotics was associated with a 22 percent increase in the likelihood of imprisonment, compared with the likelihood in a state without such a requirement.
A probiotic that prevents obesity could be on the horizon. Bacteria that produce a therapeutic compound in the gut inhibit weight gain, insulin resistance and other adverse effects of a high-fat diet in mice, investigators have discovered. Regulatory issues must be addressed before moving to human studies, but the findings suggest that it may be possible to manipulate the bacterial residents of the gut -- the gut microbiota -- to treat obesity and other chronic diseases.
Contrary to previous assumptions, researchers find that preschoolers are able to gauge the strength of their memories and make decisions based on their self-assessments. The findings contribute to research on the reliability of children's eyewitness testimony in a court of law, and they carry important implications for educational practices. "Previous emphasis on the development of metacognition during middle childhood has influenced education practices," says an author. "Now we know that some of these ideas may be adapted to meet preschoolers' learning needs."
A research team has demonstrated a dramatically improved technique for analyzing biological cells and tissues based on characteristic molecular vibrations. The new technique is an advanced form of Raman spectroscopy that is fast and accurate enough to create high-resolution images of biological specimens, with detailed spatial information on specific biomolecules, at speeds fast enough to observe changes in living cells.
Vitamin D-deficient individuals are twice as likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia as people who have sufficient levels of the vitamin, according to a new study. Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium and is needed for bone and muscle health. The skin naturally produces this vitamin after exposure to sunlight. People also obtain smaller amounts of the vitamin through foods, such as milk fortified with vitamin D. More than 1 billion people worldwide are estimated to have deficient levels of vitamin D due to limited sunshine exposure.
People with Type 2 diabetes who eat a diet high in salt face twice the risk of developing cardiovascular disease as those who consume less sodium, according to a new study. Diabetes occurs when there is too much sugar in the bloodstream. People develop Type 2 diabetes when their bodies become resistant to the hormone insulin, which carries sugar from the blood to cells.
Sense of smell is critical for survival in many mammals. In a new study, researchers examined the olfactory receptor repertoire encoded in 13 mammalian species and found that African elephants have the largest number of OR genes ever characterized; more than twice that found in dogs, and five times more than in humans.
A tissue engineering and vascular biology expert recently won a Faculty Early Career Development Award for his work on 3D tissue printing, and its contribution of the advancement of stem cell research.
Autoimmune disorders may share certain pathogenic mechanisms with cancer, according to a new report. "This study opens a new therapeutic approach for myasthenia gravis, as well as other autoimmune disorders," said one researcher. "Conventional therapies may improve the disease, but have numerous complications. This discovery may lead to a viable treatment option for the millions of American suffering from these disorders."
Vibrate a solution of rod-shaped metal nanoparticles in water with ultrasound and they'll spin around their long axes like tiny drill bits. Why? No one yet knows exactly. But researchers have clocked their speed -- and it's fast. At up to 150,000 revolutions per minute, ten times faster than any nanorotor ever reported.
Highly purified crystals that split light with uncanny precision are key parts of high-powered lenses, specialized optics and, potentially, computers that manipulate light instead of electricity. But producing these crystals by current techniques, such as etching them with a precise beam of electrons, is often extremely difficult and expensive. Now, researchers have proposed a new method that could allow scientists to customize and grow these specialized materials, known as photonic crystals, with relative ease.
Scientists have devised a breakthrough laser that uses a single artificial atom to generate and emit particles of light. The laser may play a crucial role in the development of quantum computers, which are predicted to eventually outperform today's most powerful supercomputers.
Participants who received care through a Violence Intervention Advocacy Program -- an interventional program targeting the physical, mental, emotional and social needs of violently injured youths -- were less likely to retaliate for their injuries and experienced life changing behaviors through connections to caring, steady, supportive adults who helped them feel trust and hope, researchers report.
"Name everything you can think of that is alive." How would a child respond to this question? Would his or her list be full of relatives, animals from movies and books, or perhaps neighborhood pets? Would the poppies blooming on the front steps make the list or the oak tree towering over the backyard? The children's responses in a recent study revealed clear convergences among distinct communities but also illuminated differences among them.
Scientists attached radio-frequency identification tags to hundreds of individual honey bees and tracked them for several weeks. The effort yielded two discoveries: Some foraging bees are much busier than others; and if those busy bees disappear, others will take their place.
New research, for the first time, brings scientists nearer to understanding how some cells in the brain and nervous system become cancerous. The team studied a tumor suppressor called Merlin. Their results have identified a new mechanism whereby Merlin suppresses tumors, and that the mechanism operates within the nucleus. The research team has discovered that unsuppressed tumor cells increase via a core signalling system, the hippo pathway, and they have identified the route and method by which this signalling occurs.
Scientists have made an important discovery about the molecular interactions that occur between generally benign species of Propionibacterium bacteria and the pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, the cause of most 'staph' infections.
In contrast to their negative reputation as disease causing agents, some viruses can perform crucial biological and evolutionary functions that help to shape the world we live in today, according to a new report. "Viruses participate in essential Earth processes and influence all life forms on the planet, from contributing to biogeochemical cycles, shaping the atmospheric composition, and driving major speciation events," states one researcher.
Sometimes finding the best bang for your buck feels like a wild goose chase. It’s hard to know which stores offer the best prices at any given time. According to a new study, when trying to maximize savings, consumers will choose retailers they believe offer the lowest prices the majority of the time.
Have you found yourself at a fancy restaurant trying to impress new friends or in a foreign country and unsure of what to order? Not wanting to appear foolish, you just go along with everyone else. According to a new study, we’re more likely to copy other people’s choices when we lack social acceptance or enough information to make an informed decision.
Have you ever received a request for help and wondered how deserving the recipients are of your donation? This way of thinking may seem inconsistent with your moral values, especially if you consider yourself an otherwise compassionate and empathic person. A new study suggests that moral identity decreases donations when recipients are deemed to be responsible for their plight.
Imagine that you have a cup of coffee and sit down to read People
magazine. How long do you think the energy boost will last before you reach for another cup? Would you need more caffeine if you tried to read War and Peace
? A new study finds that consumers wrongly believe that pharmacological products such as coffee and aspirin lose their effectiveness when they engage in more strenuous activities.
The heart of an astronaut is a much-studied thing. Scientists have analyzed its blood flow, rhythms, atrophy and, through journal studies, even matters of the heart. But for the first time, researchers are looking at how oxidative stress and inflammation caused by the conditions of space flight affect those hearts for up to five years after astronauts fly on the International Space Station. Lessons learned may help improve cardiovascular health on Earth as well.
The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer, known as HIRAD, will fly aboard one of two unmanned Global Hawk aircraft during NASA's Hurricane Severe Storm Sentinel or HS3 mission from Wallops beginning August 26 through September 29. One of the NASA Global Hawks will cover the storm environment and the other will analyze inner-storm conditions. HIRAD will fly aboard the inner-storm Global Hawk and will be positioned at the bottom, rear section of the aircraft.
Fifteen years ago, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory was launched into space aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. Since its deployment on July 23, 1999, Chandra has helped revolutionize our understanding of the universe through its unrivaled X-ray vision.
Blueberries pack a powerful antioxidant punch, whether eaten fresh or from the freezer, according to a researcher. Anthocyanins, a group of antioxidant compounds, are responsible for the color in blueberries, and since most of the color is in the skin, freezing the blueberries actually improves the availability of the antioxidants.
In late June 2013, an exceptional binary containing a rapidly spinning neutron star underwent a dramatic change in behavior never before observed. The pulsar's radio beacon vanished, while at the same time the system brightened fivefold in gamma rays, the most powerful form of light, according to measurements by NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.
Stuck in traffic? On hold for what seems like an eternity? Consumers often face situations that undermine their feelings of control. According to a new study, when a person's sense of control is threatened, they are more likely to seek out products that require hard work.
To support the fair sale of gaseous hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, researchers have developed a prototype field test standard to test the accuracy of hydrogen fuel dispensers. Once the standard is field tested, it will serve as a model for constructing similar devices for state weights and measures inspectors to use.
When it comes to television advertising, simple may be best, says one expert, whose study reports that multiple angles and perspectives in commercials may actually prevent consumers from forming positive associations about the products. She found this to be particularly true for consumers who imagine using the products themselves in the course of evaluating them.
Researchers have demonstrated a novel design for a small atomic clock that is based on a chip-scale frequency comb, or a microcomb.
In a cost-effectiveness analysis of commercial diet programs and pills, the Weight Watchers program and the drug Qsymia showed the best value for the money. The Jenny Craig regimen generated the greatest weight loss, but was also the most expensive option tested, according to researchers.
The drinking water resources on the eastern, Jordanian side of the Dead Sea could decline more severely as a result of climate change than those on the western, Israeli and Palestinian side. This is the conclusion reached by an international team of researchers that calculated the water flows around the Dead Sea. The natural replenishment rate of groundwater will reduce dramatically in the future if precipitation lowers as predicted.
The bats use the way the sun's light is scattered in the atmosphere at sunset to calibrate their internal magnetic compass, which helps them to fly in the right direction, a new study has shown.
Scientists have found that a law of physics predicts the evolution of commercial airliners and also provides guidelines for future designs.
Valley fever has been the focus of new research that describes a promising strategy known as immunosignaturing, which can provide clinicians with an accurate identification of valley fever, a potentially serious affliction that is often misdiagnosed. Valley fever is a fungal respiratory infection. It can be acquired when microscopic spores of the soil-dwelling fungus are inhaled. Two forms of the fungus exist, Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. They are endemic to regions of Arizona, New Mexico, California, Nevada, Utah, Texas and northern Mexico.
Pigs that are bred commercially in Europe are found to have a highly varied mosaic of different European and Asian gene variants. The Asian genes in particular result in a large number of piglets in European pig breeds. Researchers now explain that a number of important characteristics of European pigs have Asian origins. They previously demonstrated that the genetic diversity among commercial pigs is greater than within the existing populations of wild boar.
The fly can pinpoint the location of a chirping cricket with remarkable accuracy because of its freakishly acute hearing, which relies upon a sophisticated sound processing mechanism that really sets it apart from all other known insects. Researchers have now developed a tiny prototype device that mimics the parasitic fly’s hearing mechanism, which may be useful for a new generation of hypersensitive hearing aids.
Interest in magnetic random access memory (MRAM) is escalating, thanks to demand for fast, low-cost, nonvolatile, low-consumption, secure memory devices. MRAM boasts all of these advantages as an emerging technology, but so far it hasn't been able to match flash memory in terms of storage density. A research team reports an intriguing new multi-bit MRAM storage paradigm with the potential to rival flash memory.
New research identifies the unhappiest cities in the U.S., but finds that some young people are still willing to relocate to them for a good job opportunity or lower housing prices. The analysis suggests people may be deciding to trade happiness for other gains.
African-Americans are 45 percent more likely than whites to switch from owning their homes to renting them, A new study from American sociologists finds. The study examines racial inequality in transitions out of homeownership over the last four decades. The authors used longitudinal household data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics for the period 1968 to 2009, with a study sample of 6,994 non-Hispanic whites and 3,158 black homeowners.
The darker side of meerkats -- which sees them prevent their daughters from breeding, and kill their grandchildren -- is explained in a new study. Research into the desert creatures -- which live in groups with a dominant breeding pair and many adult helpers -- shows that the alpha female can flourish when it maintains the sole right to breed. The study shows how this way of life, also found in many animals such as ants and bees, can prove effective despite its sinister side.
In Jeju, Korea, a place emerging as a world-famous vacation spot with natural tourism resources, a recent study revealed a volcanic eruption occurred on the island as recently as 5,000 years ago. Judging from the findings, Jeju Island is not an extinct volcano, but seems to a potentially live volcano; volcano that has erupted within 10,000 years is defined to be a live volcano on a geological basis.
An anti-cancer drug can activate hidden HIV, a pilot study by HIV researchers has shown. The researchers found that the anti-cancer drug romidepsin increased the virus production in HIV-infected cells between 2.1 and 3.9 times above normal and that the viral load in the blood increased to measurable levels in five out of six patients with HIV infection.
Mixed genes appear to drive hybrid birds to select more difficult routes than their parent species, according to new research. "Instead of taking well-trodden paths through fertile areas, these birds choose to scale mountains and cross deserts," says one of the researchers.
Astronomers have probed the extreme outskirts of the stunning elliptical galaxy Centaurus A. The galaxy's halo of stars has been found to extend much further from the galaxy's center than expected and the stars within this halo seem to be surprisingly rich in heavy elements. This is the most remote portion of an elliptical galaxy ever to have been explored.